Leukonychia: White Spots on Your Nails

What Causes White Spots on Nails
What Causes White Spots on Nails

Our nails have the potential to offer valuable insights into our general well-being. One notable abnormality to look out for is the appearance of white spots on the nails. While these spots are often harmless, they may cause anxiety and prompt individuals to seek potential causes and remedies. This article aims to provide an in-depth understanding of what causes these white spots, how to prevent them, and available treatment options.

White Spots on Nails

What is Leukonychia?

Leukonychia is a condition characterized by the appearance of whiteness or discoloration on the nails. It is commonly referred to as “white spots on nails.” These spots can vary in size and shape and can manifest on one or multiple nails. Leukonychia can affect both fingernails and toenails.

Apparent leukonychia, on the other hand, occurs due to factors external to the nail matrix. The most common cause of apparent leukonychia is physical trauma or injury to the nail bed. Other causes can include fungal infections, allergic reactions to nail products, and certain medical conditions.

It’s important to note that while leukonychia can be concerning for some individuals, most cases are harmless and do not require medical treatment. In some instances, the condition may resolve on its own as the nail grows out. However, if the white spots are persistent, painful, or associated with other symptoms, it is advisable to seek medical attention to identify the underlying cause and explore appropriate treatment options. Regular nail care and maintaining a balanced diet with essential nutrients can also contribute to overall nail health and prevent the occurrence of white spots on nails.

Types of Leukonychia

There are two main types of leukonychia:

True Leukonychia

True leukonychia is a type of leukonychia characterized by white discoloration or white spots that originate within the nail itself. It is not caused by external factors affecting the nail bed or surrounding tissues, but rather by changes or abnormalities in the nail plate or matrix.

True leukonychia can be further divided into two main subtypes:

  • Leukonychia punctata
  • Leukonychia strata

Apparent Leukonychia

Apparent leukonychia is a type of leukonychia where the white discoloration or white spots on the nails are not caused by any intrinsic abnormalities in the nail itself but rather by factors external to the nail plate. In other words, the discoloration is not originating from within the nail, but is due to conditions affecting the nail bed or surrounding tissues.

There are different subtypes of apparent leukonychia, and they can be caused by various factors, including:

  • Pseudoleukonychia
  • Terry’s Nails
  • Muehrcke’s lines

What Causes White Spots on Nails?

Certainly! Here are the common causes of white spots on nails presented in bullet points:

  • Trauma or Injury: Minor injuries to the nail matrix, which is the tissue beneath the base of the nail responsible for nail growth, can lead to the development of white spots on the nails.
  • Nutritional Deficiencies: Inadequate intake of certain essential nutrients, such as zinc, calcium, and iron, can cause white spots to appear on the nails.
  • Fungal Infections: Certain fungal infections affecting the nail plate or the nail bed can lead to the formation of white spots or discoloration on the nails.
  • Allergic Reactions: Contact with certain chemicals or allergens can cause an allergic reaction on the nail, resulting in the appearance of white spots.
  • Manicure Mishaps: Over-vigorous manicures, improper nail treatments, or the use of harsh nail products can cause damage to the nail, leading to the formation of white spots.
  • Medical Conditions: Some medical conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, or other systemic disorders may cause white spots or other nail abnormalities.

Possible Symptoms and Complications

Apart from the visible white spots on nails, individuals may experience accompanying symptoms and complications, such as:

  • White spots or dots on nails.
  • Spots can be irregular or rounded.
  • May appear on multiple nails.
  • Usually painless and no discomfort.
  • Nails grow with the spots moving outward.
  • Spots may persist or resolve with time.

Remember, if you have concerns about whiteness on your nails or any other nail issues, it’s best to consult a healthcare professional or a dermatologist for proper evaluation and advice.

Medical Treatments

The treatment for “White Spots on Nails” (leukonychia) depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In many cases, leukonychia does not require specific treatment as the spots may resolve on their own as the nails grow out. However, if the white spots persist or are cosmetically bothersome, here are some potential treatments:

  • Nutritional Supplements: If the white spots are caused by nutritional deficiencies, such as zinc or calcium, taking supplements or adjusting the diet may help.
  • Moisturization: Keeping the nails and cuticles well-moisturized with creams or oils can promote nail health and reduce the appearance of white spots.
  • Avoiding Harsh Nail Products: Refrain from using harsh nail polishes, removers, or other chemicals that could further damage the nails.
  • Fungal Infection Treatment: If a fungal infection is causing the white spots, antifungal treatments, like topical creams or oral medications may be necessary.
  • Nail Buffing or Filing: In some cases, buffing or filing the nails gently can help smooth out the surface and reduce the visibility of whiteness.

Prevention and Maintenance Tips

Prevention is crucial in managing white spots on nails. Consider the following tips:

  • Maintaining a well-balanced diet rich in essential nutrients is vital for overall nail health.
  • Being cautious with your nails and avoiding excessive pressure can reduce the risk of white spots.
  • Keeping the nails and cuticles hydrated with moisturizers can promote healthy nail growth.
  • Limiting the use of harsh chemicals on nails can help prevent allergic reactions.
  • Trimming nails regularly and keeping them clean can prevent trauma and infections.

Natural Remedies for White Spots on Nails

  • Lemon Juice: Lemon juice’s natural bleaching properties can help diminish the appearance of white spots.
  • Tea Tree Oil: Tea tree oil’s antifungal properties may be beneficial for treating fungal-related leukonychia.
  • Olive Oil: Applying olive oil can help moisturize the nails and reduce the appearance of white spots.
  • Garlic: Garlic’s antimicrobial properties make it a potential remedy for fungal-induced white spots.
  • Baking Soda: A baking soda paste can act as an exfoliant, removing dead cells and reducing the spots’ visibility.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Are white spots on nails a sign of calcium deficiency?

No, while mineral deficiencies can cause whiteness on nails, calcium deficiency is not the sole reason for their appearance.

Can I cover white spots with nail polish?

Covering the whiteness with nail polish is generally safe, but it’s essential to allow your nails to breathe occasionally.

Will these spots spread to other nails?

White spots caused by minor injuries or nutrient deficiencies are not contagious and will not spread to other nails.

Can stress cause whiteness on nails?

Stress itself may not directly cause white spots, but it can contribute to overall nail health issues.

Are white spots on nails a sign of a serious health condition?

In most cases, white spots are harmless, but if you have concerns, it’s best to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation.


White spots on nails are a common occurrence and are usually nothing to worry about. In the majority of cases, they are a result of minor issues like mineral deficiencies or nail injuries. Additionally, another nail abnormality to be mindful of is the appearance of black lines on nails. Just like white spots, black lines can also be caused by various factors and may not always indicate a serious problem.


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